Sociology has emerged as one of the most scoring subject in Civil Services Examination. In fact, after Political Science, the highest number of students appears in Civil Services main is from Sociology. Short syllabus, easy understandability, marks fetching subject for Civil Services main exam, these are some general trend that attracts thousands of students every year to choose Sociology as their optional subject.

About Our Course

Why to choose Sociology as an Optional?

  • In the recent year, sociology has emerged the most popular and safer optional among the aspirants.
  • Sociology is nothing but the generalised understanding of the society which we live in which doesn’t require any specialised knowledge.
  • The syllabus of this optional is very concise and small, saving time for the aspirants
  • It has overlap in all the areas of GS in Mains namely
    • GS I – Indian Society
    • GS II – Social Justice
    • GS III – Linkages in parts in Land Reforms, Naxal Movement etc
    • GS IV – Human values
  • Apart from this, Sociology optional helps us to understand the various facets of the society which would help when the aspirants enter the bureaucracy
  • The optional itself is very productive in nature, wherein it helps the aspirant to develop the traits of analysing the various issues, thereby making him ready to give good answers in Mains and in Interview.

Key Features of the Course


5 Months


Weekend Batch – 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m.

Tentative Date of starting

September 2nd Week


  • Materials
  • Test Series
  • One-to-One Guidance
  • Answer Writing Practice


Paper - I

Fundamentals Of Sociology

1. Sociology - The Discipline:

  1. Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
  2. Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
  3. Sociology and common sense.

2. Sociology as Science:

  1. Science, scientific method and critique.
  2. Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
  3. Positivism and its critique.
  4. Fact value and objectivity.
  5. Non-positivist methodologies.

3. Research Methods and Analysis:

  1. Qualitative and quantitative methods.
  2. Techniques of data collection.
  3. Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

4. Sociological Thinkers:

  1. Karl Marx - Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
  2. Emile Durkhteim - Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
  3. Max Weber - Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
  4. Talcolt Parsons - Social system, pattern variables.
  5. Robert K. Merton - Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
  6. Mead - Self and identity.

5. Stratification and Mobility:

  1. Concepts - equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
  2. Theories of social stratification - Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
  3. Dimensions - Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
  4. Social mobility - open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

6. Works and Economic Life:

  1. Social organization of work in different types of society - slave society, feudal society, industrial, capitalist society.
  2. Formal and informal organization of work.
  3. Labour and society.

7. Politics and Society:

  1. Sociological theories of power.
  2. Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
  3. Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
  4. Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

8. Religion and Society:

  1. Sociological theories of religion.
  2. Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
  3. Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

9. Systems of Kinship:

  1. Family, household, marriage.
  2. Types and forms of family.
  3. Lineage and descent.
  4. Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
  5. Contemporary trends.

10. Social Change in Modern Society:

  1. Sociological theories of social change.
  2. Development and dependency.
  3. Agents of social change.
  4. Education and social change.
  5. Science, technology and social change.

Paper - II

Indian Society: Structure And Change

1. Introducing Indian Society:

(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Societ :

  1. Indology (G.S. Ghure).
  2. Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).
  3. Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

  1. Social background of Indian nationalism.
  2. Modernization of Indian tradition.
  3. Protests and movements during the colonial period.
  4. Social reforms.

2. Social Structure:

(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

  1. The idea of Indian village and village studies.
  2. Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

(ii) Caste System:

  1. Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
  2. Features of caste system.
  3. Untouchability-forms and perspectives

(iii) Tribal Communities in India:

  1. Definitional problems.
  2. Geographical spread.
  3. Colonial policies and tribes.
  4. Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:

  1. Agrarian class structure.
  2. Industrial class structure
  3. Middle classes in India.

(v) Systems of Kinship in India:

  1. Lineage and descent in India.
  2. Types of kinship systems.
  3. Family and marriage in India.
  4. Household dimensions of the family.
  5. Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division oflabour.

(vi) Religion and Society :

  1. Religious communities in India.
  2. Problems of religious minorities.

3. Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

  1. Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
  2. Constitution, law and social change.
  3. Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:

  1. Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
  2. Green revolution and social change.
  3. Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
  4. Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

  1. Evolution of modern industry in India.
  2. Growth of urban settlements in India.
  3. Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
  4. Informal sector, child labour.
  5. Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society:

  1. Nation, democracy and citizenship.
  2. Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
  3. Regionalism and decentralization of power.
  4. Secularization.

(v) Social Movements in Modern India:

  1. Peasants and farmers movements
  2. Women’s movement.
  3. Backward classes & Dalit movements.
  4. Environmental movements.
  5. Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics:

  1. Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
  2. Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
  3. Population Policy and family planning.
  4. Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:

  1. Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
  2. Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
  3. Violence against women.
  4. Caste conflicts.
  5. Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
  6. Illiteracy and disparities in education.

Previous Year Questions

Previous year Questions gives you a better idea of the need of UPSC and the ever evolving nature of the exam. PYQs are the tool that will help you to have a right direction in the preparation.